Genetic Screening (PGD)
Genetic screening - PGD is used to screen for common genetic diseases and prevent their transmission to children. It is also used to identify abnormal chromosomes in the embryo. Genetic screening is done by means of simple blood tests while chromosomal screening is done by means of biopsy of embryo cells.
Genetic screening can avoid transmission of a wide range of diseases like Cystic Fibrosis, Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), BRCA1 and 2 (Breast Cancer Gene), Thalassemias, and many others. In case the father and mother both carry one copy of an identical disease then the embryo has one in four chances of ineriting that disease. By simply screening the embryo for a certain disease, the risk can be avoided. Similarly screening can be done for genetic diseases as well as gene disorders.
All produced embryos are not normal so chromosomal testing is important to check for abnormalities in embryos and IVF outcomes. A significant number of embryos developed after the natural or assisted conception posses abnormalities. So it is necessary to test for chromosomal abnormalities before transferring the embryo into the uterus. With the help of chromosomal screening it is thus possible to select only the normal embryos and transfer them to the womb.